One of the five types of Suction Entrapment. Body Entrapment is defined as entrapment caused by the body, or a limb getting held to a Suction Outlet. The hold down force which makes this possible can come from gravity pulling water out of the pool, circulation suction from the pump, or a combination of both.
There are potentially many different circumstances of poor design, construction, vandalism and/or maintenance that can produce the conditions for this hazard, which can occur in any basin containing water which has a Suction Outlet Port. Such as Swimming Pools, Wading Pools, Spas, and other Water features. Most documented Body Entrapment scenarios suggest that any open drain, or any flat grating that the body can cover completely, coupled with a plumbing configuration that allows a strong suction force to persist if the drain is blocked can present this hazard.
The key to suction safety is Layers of Protection. Should one layer fail, there is a additional layer of protection in place to assist in the avoidance of injury and preservation of life.
1. Education - Knowing about this hazard and educating our families is the first step to preventing an incident.
2. Sound Hydraulics - Multiple Suction outlet configurations, if constructed properly is a safety measure in of itself. If incorrectly installed or used with small diameter plumbing, hydraulic issues could create additional hazards for entrapment.
3. Anti-Entrapment Suction Outlet Cover - Use ASME/ANSI A112.19.8b 2008 Certified suction outlet cover on all suction outlets. Their domed shape creates a barrier which precludes body entrapment on the suction outlet.
4. "Plan B" - Should the Anti-Entrapment Suction Outlet Cover fail (Vandalism, Removal, Improper installation) a Plan B should be in place. These are products which activate when a Body Entrapment type situation occurs. These products include Gravity Feed, Vent to Atmosphere, Safety Vacuum Limiting System, or A112.19.17 VGB Compliant Safety Vacuum Release System.
Should an Entrapment Occur: Emergency Suction Entrapment Release Procedure
"Guidelines for Entrapment Hazards" - http://www.cpsc.gov/CPSCPUB/PUBS/363.pdf
"Body Entrapment" - http://www.drainsafe.com/bodyentrapment.html
"Retrofit Existing Facilities" - http://www.drainsafe.com/retrofit.html
"CPSC Layers of Protection" - http://www.cpsc.gov/cpscpub/pubs/5101.pdf